Hitos de la era espacial

Space age

By the mid-20th century, the then superpowers (the United States and the Soviet Union) had made their first forays into space, signifying the beginning of the Space Age. 

The main milestones are detailed below, and can be reviewed in greater detail on this link. 

Milestones of the Space age

What we do in space is to improve life on Earth

Charles Bolden, former Administrator of NASA and Trustee of the Foundation Innovation Bankinter. explains the importance of Comercialization of Space and emphasizes that everything that has been done in space has been to improve life on planet Earth

Space industry
 

In order to understand the space industry and business opportunities in space, one must understand the playing field: orbits, how they are defined and what ventures are suitable for each orbit. 
The mainOrbits are as follows:

 

                             Órbitas

Click on the image for details of the orbits of the space industry.

Space-related businesses generate roughly $260 billion annually. According to estimates from Bank of America Merrill Lynch, investment in space will increase eightfold, reaching roughly $2.7 trillion.


This growth will be driven by the construction of reusable rockets, the ever-increasing demand for Internet access in remote parts of the world (~4 billion people without Internet today), the growing demand for mobility and the increasing desire to monitor the environment, which includes weather forecasting needs. 

Investment is divided into three parts:

 

   Rockets 

  Rockets must be built in order to launch the wide variety of satellites, probes and ships into space. Without rockets for transport, it does not make much sense to build any type of satellite, rope or ship.

 

  Satellites
  Next comes the construction of satellites of all types, including those for Earth observation and communications, to name a few, as well as space probes, cargo vessels and manned ships. 

   Control Systems  
   These satellites and probes require control systems and infrastructure that ensure that tools and vehicles are effectively used once in orbit. 

 

 

For now, governments are the majority stakeholders in space and often hire traditional, large, aerospace firms to design, build and launch their projects.

We must wait and see what slice of the $2.7 trillion pie will go to private companies. It is estimated that between June 2017 and June 2018, private companies invested $3.4 billion in space. According to analyses this figure will increase as technology becomes more advanced and costs as reduced. We will be able to build satellites and launchers at prices that were inconceivable not so long ago. In fact, a growing number of companies, that are entirely outside the traditional aerospace sector are entering the market and risking their investment capital on projects without any type of government support. 

It is getting easier to reach space.

Conference of Richard Pournelle, Vice President of Nanoracks, at the 31ST meeting of the Future Trends Forum about the commercialization of space. He speaks of the ease of being in space for individuals, Governments and businesses, both for research and for commercialization.

 

Algunos ejemplos de esto son el de las empresas de telecomunicaciones que colocan satélites en órbita geoestacionaria para dar servicios propios o bien para alquilar capacidad de transmisión a otras empresas, como por ejemplo Hispasat o Thales Alenia. O empresas como Planet Labs, que está financiando la construcción y lanzamiento de una flota de satélites de observación terrestre que fotografían toda la superficie de la Tierra cada día con una resolución de entre 3 y 5 metros, imágenes que luego venden a clientes.

Y no se puede terminar este apartado sin hablar de empresas como Blue Origin, SpaceX o Virgin Space o Virgin Galactic, surgidas de la iniciativa de emprendedores como Jeff Bezos, Elon Musk y Richard Branson, que están revolucionando el mundo de los lanzamientos espaciales con cohetes reutilizables y/o a más bajo coste que el de los lanzadores tradicionales. Aunque en este campo el aldabonazo del año lo ha dado Rocket Lab, la empresa estadounidense

 que ha empezado los lanzamientos regulares de su cohete Electron, un cohete diseñado para poner cargas de hasta 255 kilos en órbita sincrónica al Sol que no es que sea más barato por kilo lanzado que otros cohetes en ese segmento de mercado sino que promete una cadencia de lanzamiento de hasta un cohete a la semana, lo que eliminaría de un plumazo uno de los grandes problemas que se encuentra quien quiere lanzar un satélite, que es el de la disponibilidad de lanzadores.

En Europa el ejemplo en este caso es la empresa española PLD Space, que acaba de ganar el concurso de la Agencia Espacial Europea para desarrollar el Miura 5, un cohete parcialmente reutilizable para el lanzamiento de satélites en miniatura a una órbita de 400 kilómetros.

A continuación le mostramos las principales aplicaciones que hoy en día tiene la industria espacial, incluyendo casos reales de las principales empresas que son agentes del ecosistema y las valoraciones del mercado: 

Aplicaciones de la industria espacial

Space Industry Applications

  • Manufacturing in space

    Manufacturing

    Manufacture products in orbit.

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  • Research in Space

    Research

    Carry out scientific and technical research in space.

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  • Space Observation

    Observation

    Observe the behaviour of the Earth

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  • Communication

    Communication

    Facilitate the communication on Earth.

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  • Defense in Space

    Defense

    Defend the Earth´s safety from space.

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  • Space Mining

    Mining

    Extract new materials in space.

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  • Space Exploration

    Exploration

    Space Exploration

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  • Pharma in space

    Pharma

    Create new drugs in space.

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  • Space tourism

    Tourism

    Create space tourism activities.

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  • Space Shuttles

    Shuttles

    Create new ways of reaching space.

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  • Space industry

    Space industry

    How is the current space industry.

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  • New opportunities

    New opportunities

    Opportunities and risks of the commercialization of space.

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  • Space Commercialization in Spain

    Space in Spain

    How is the commercialization of space in Spain.

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  • Challenges in Space Commercialization

    Challenges

    Conclusions and challenges of the commercialization of space.

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